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Cultural Consequences, 2nd Ed.

Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations

Geert H. Hofstede

Publisher: Sage, 2001 , 596 pages

ISBN: 0-8039-7323-3

Synopsis:

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The Second Edition of this classic work, first published in 1981 and an international best seller, explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist among members of more than 50 modern nations. Geert Hofstede argues that people carry "mental programs" which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in schools and organizations, and that these programs contain components of national culture. They are expressed most clearly in the different values that predominate among people from different countries.

Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture's Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation.

Table of Contents:

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    • From the Preface to the First Edition (1980)
    • Preface to the Second Edition
    • Summary of the Book
    1. Values and Culture
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • Definitions and Distinctions
        • Mental Programs
        • Describing Mental Programs in Measurable Terms
        • Values
        • Measuring Values
        • Culture
        • National Cultures and Their Stability
        • National Character and National Stereotypes
        • Cultural Relativism
      • Studying Culture
        • Comparing Cultures: Changing the Level of Analysis
        • Avoiding Ethnocentrism
        • The Need for a Multidisciplinary Approach
        • Language and Translation
        • Matching Samples: Functional Equivalence
        • Modal and Marginal Phenomena
      • Dimensions of Culture
        • The Specific and the General
        • Searching for Dimensions of Culture
        • Dimensions Versus Typologies
        • Five Basic Problems of National Societies
        • Other Dimensions of Culture in the Literature: Theory Based
        • Other Dimensions of Culture in the Literature: Empirical
      • Culture Change
        • The Process of Culture Change
        • Culture Change and the IBM Data
      • Notes
    2. Data Collection, Treatment and Validation
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • The Research Settings
        • The IBM Corporation
        • The Use of Attitude Surveys in IBM
        • Questionnaire Translation and Survey Administration
        • The IBM Survey Database
        • A Second Research Setting: IMEDE Business School
      • Data Treatment
        • Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency Within Groups
        • ANOVA: Country, Occupation, Gender, and Age
        • Comparing 40 Countries: Matching Occupations
        • Extension to 50 Countries Plus Three Regions
        • Selecting Stable Questions
        • Eclectic Analysis: Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance
        • Work Goal Importance Data: Eliminating Acquiescence
        • Work Goal Importance: Ecological Factor Analysis
        • Putting the Four Dimensions Together
        • Value Shifts in IBM Between 1967-69 and 1971-73
        • Correlations Between Index Scores
        • Country Clusters
        • Multilingual Countries: Belgium, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia
      • Validation
        • The Reliability of Country Dimension Scores
        • Replicating the IBM Research
        • Comparing With Data From Other Sources
        • Economic, Geographic, and Demographic Indicators
        • Adding a Fifth Dimension
        • Studying Organizational Cultures
        • Support and Criticisms of the Approach Followed
      • Notes
    3. Power Distance
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • Inequality and Power Distance
        • On Animal and Human Inequality
        • Inequality in Society
        • Inequality in Organizations
        • The Concept of Power Distance
        • Power Distance and Human Inequality
      • Measuring National Differences in Power Distance in IBM
        • Organization of Chapters 3 Through 7
        • A Power Distance Index for IBM Countries
        • Power Distance Index Scores by Occupation
        • Gender Differences in Power Distance
        • Country Power Distance Index Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
      • Validating PDI Against Data From Other Sources
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • PDI Versus Studies of General Values in Society
        • Summary of General Connotations of the Power Distance Index Found in Survey Material
      • Origins and Implications of Country Power Distance Differences
        • The Power Distance Societal Norm
        • Power Distance in the Family
        • Power Distance, Schools, and Educational Systems
        • Power Distance in Work and Organization
        • Power Distance, Worker Participation, and "Industrial Democracy"
        • Power Distance and Political Systems
        • Power Distance and Religion, Ideology, and Theories of Power
        • Power Distance and Aviation Safety
        • Predictors of PDI: Latitude, Population Size, and Wealth
        • Power Distance and Historical Factors: D'Iribarne's Contribution
        • Power Distance and Historical Factors: The Roman Empire and Colonialism
        • The Future of Power Distance Differences
      • Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
        • Calculating the Power Distance Index by Country
        • Power Distance Index Scores by Occupation
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • Results of Other Survey Studies Significantly Correlated With PDI
        • Indexes at the National Level Significantly Correlated With PDI
        • PDI Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
        • Trends in PDI
      • Notes
    4. Uncertainty Avoidance
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • The Concept of Uncertainty Avoidance
        • Time, Future, Uncertainty, and Anxiety
        • Uncertainty Avoidance in Organizations
        • Uncertainty Avoidance Is Not the Same as Risk Avoidance
      • Measuring National Differences in Uncertainty Avoidance in IBM
        • An Uncertainty Avoidance Index for IBM Countries
        • Uncertainty Avoidance Versus Power Distance
        • Occupation and Gender Differences in the Scores on the Uncertainty Avoidance Items
        • Country UAI Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
      • Validating UAI Against Data From Other Sources
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • UAI, Anxiety, and Emotions: Studies by Lynn and Others
        • UAI and Subjective Well-Being
        • UAI Versus Studies of General Values in Society
        • Summary of General Connotations of the Uncertainty Avoidance Index Found in Survey Material
      • Origins and Implications of Country Uncertainty Avoidance Differences
        • The Uncertainty Avoidance Societal Norm
        • Uncertainty Avoidance in the Family
        • Uncertainty Avoidance, Schools, and Educational Systems
        • UAI and Achievement Motivation: McClelland's Data
        • Uncertainty Avoidance in the Work Situation
        • Uncertainty Avoidance and Consumer Behavior
        • Uncertainty Avoidance and Political Systems
        • Uncertainty Avoidance and Legislation
        • Uncertainty Avoidance, Nationalism, and Xenophobia
        • Uncertainty Avoidance and Religions
        • Uncertainty Avoidance, Theories, and Games
        • Predictors of UAI
        • Uncertainty Avoidance and Historical Factors
        • The Future of Uncertainty Avoidance Differences
      • Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
        • Calculating the Uncertainty Avoidance Index by Country
        • Calculating Differences in Item Scores by Occupation
        • Country UAI, Average Age of Respondents, and Other IBM Survey Questions
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • Studies of Stress and Well-Being
        • McClelland's Study of Motivation
        • Results of Other Surveys Correlated With UAI
        • Indexes at the National Level Correlated With UAI
        • UAI Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
        • Trends in UAI
      • Notes
    5. Individualism and Collectivism
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • The Individual and the Collectivity
        • Individualism in Society
        • Individualism in Organizations and Organization Theories
      • Measuring National Differences in Individualism in IBM
        • An Individualism Index for Countries in the IBM Sample
        • Societal Versus Individual Individualism and Collectivism, and Whether Ind and Col Are One or Two Dimensions
        • Individualism Versus Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance
        • Individualism and Occupation, Gender, and Age
        • Country Individualism Index Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
      • Validating IDV Against Data From Other Sources
        • Distinguishing IDV From PDI and GNP/Capita
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • IDV Versus Schwartz's Values Surveys of Teachers and Students
        • IDV Versus Smith and Dugan's Analysis of Trompenaars's Data
        • IDV Versus Inglehart's Analysis of the World Values Survey
        • IDV Scores and Other Studies of General Values
        • Summary of Value Connotations of the Individualism Index Found in Surveys and Related Material
      • Origins and Implications of Country Individualism Differences
        • The Individualism Societal Norm
        • Individualism and Collectivism in the Family
        • Individualism and Collectivism Versus Personality and Behavior
        • Individualism and Collectivism in Language Use and Group Identity
        • Individualism and Collectivism, Schools, and Educational Systems
        • Individualism and Collectivism in the Work Situation
        • Collectivism and the Applicability of Management Methods
        • Individualism and Consumer Behavior
        • Health and Disability in Individualist and Collectivist Societies
        • Individualism or Collectivism, Political Systems, and Legislation
        • Individualism and Collectivism, Religions, and Ideas
        • Predictors of IDV: Wealth and Latitude
        • Individualism and Historical Factors
        • The Future of Individualism Differences
      • Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
        • Calculating the Individualism Index by Country
        • Work Goal Dimensions by Occupation
        • Country IDV Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
        • Earlier Studies of Work Goals in IBM
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • Results of Other Surveys Correlated With IDV
        • Indexes at the National Level Correlated With IDV
        • IDV Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
        • Trends in IDV
      • Notes
    6. Masculinity and Femininity
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • Sexes, Genders, and Gender Roles
        • Absolute, Statistical, and Social Sex Differences
        • Gender Differences in Work Goals
      • Measuring National Differences in Masculinity in IBM
        • A Masculinity Index for Countries in the IBM Sample
        • Masculinity and Occupation, Gender, and Age
        • Country MAS Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
        • MAS and Work Centrality in IBM
        • Societal Versus Individual Masculinity and Femininity, and Whether Mas and Fem Are One or Two Dimensions
        • Masculinity Versus Individualism
      • Validating MAS Against Data From Other Sources
        • The Need to Control for Wealth Differences
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • MAS Scores Versus Other Values Surveys
        • Summary of Connotations of the Masculinity Index Found in Surveys and Related Material
      • Origins and Implications of Country Masculinity Differences
        • The Masculinity Societal Norm
        • Masculinity and Femininity in the Family
        • Masculinity, Schools, and Educational Systems
        • Masculinity and Femininity in Gender Roles
        • Masculinity and Consumer Behavior
        • Masculinity and Femininity in the Workplace
        • Masculinity, Femininity, and Political Priorities
        • Masculinity, Femininity, and Political Mores
        • Masculinity and Sexual Behavior
        • Masculinity, Femininity, and Religion
        • Masculinity and Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Factors
        • Masculinity and (Pre)Historical Factors
        • The Future of Masculinity/Femininity Differences
      • Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
        • Computing MAS for Old and New Cases
        • Country MAS Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions
        • Straight Replications of the IBM Survey
        • Results of Other Studies Correlated With MAS
        • MAS Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators
        • Trends in MAS
      • Notes
    7. Long versus Short-Term Orientation
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • East Versus West
        • Cultural Biases in the Researchers' Minds
        • The Chinese Value Survey
        • Long-Term Orientation as a Fifth Dimension
      • Measuring and Validating National Differences in Long-Term Orientation
        • A Long-Term Orientation Index for 23 Countries
        • Replications of the Measurement of Long-Term Orientation
        • Validating LTO Against Other Studies of Values
        • LTO and Savings Rates: Read's Study
        • Summary of Validations and Connotations of the Long-Term Orientation Index Found in Surveys and Related Material
      • Implications of Country Long-Term Orientation Differences
        • LTO and Family, Social Relationships, and Work
        • LTO and Ways of Thinking
        • LTO and Economic Growth
        • Long- and Short-Term Orientation in the Hindu and Muslim Worlds
        • African Values: A New Dimension?
        • The Future of Long-Term Orientation
      • Notes
    8. Cultures in Organizations
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • Organizations and National Cultures
        • There Are No Universal Solutions to Organization and Management Problems
        • The Functioning of Organizations
        • Culture and Organization Theories: Nationality Constrains Rationality
        • Planning, Control, and Accounting
        • Corporate Governance
        • Motivation and Compensation
        • Leadership and Empowerment
        • Management Development and Organization Development
        • Performance Appraisal and Management by Objectives
      • Organizational Cultures
        • The "Organizational Culture" Construct
        • Differences Between Organizational and National Cultures
        • The IRIC Organizational Culture Research Project
        • Dimensions of Organizational Cultures
        • Validating the Practice Dimensions
        • Organizational Subcultures
        • The Usefulness of the Organizational Culture Construct
        • How Universal Are the Six Organizational Culture Dimensions?
        • Individual Perceptions of Organizational Cultures
        • Implications of the Level of Analysis: Gardens, Bouquets, and Flowers
        • Occupational Cultures
      • Notes
    9. Intercultural Encounters
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • Intercultural Communication and Cooperation
        • General Principles
        • Language and Discourse
        • Culture Shock and Expatriate Failure
        • Training in Intercultural Competence
      • Political Issues
        • Minorities, Migrants, and Refugees
        • International Politics and International Organizations
        • Intercultural Negotiations
        • Economic Development, Nondevelopment, and Development Cooperation
      • Multinational Business
        • The Functioning of Multinational Business Organizations
        • International Acquisitions, Mergers, and Joint Ventures
        • International Marketing, Advertising, and Consumer Behavior
      • Schools, Tourism, and a Look Ahead
        • Intercultural Encounters in Schools
        • Intercultural Encounters in Tourism
        • The Influence of New Technology
        • Cultural Relativism, Convergence, and Divergence
      • Notes
    10. Using Culture Dimension Scores in Theory and Research
      • Summary of This Chapter
      • Applications of the Dimensional Model
        • The Fortunes of Continued Research in Six Areas
        • Fields of Application
        • Replications and Their Pitfalls
        • Extensions to New Countries
        • Using the Dimensional Model as a Paradigm
      • Closing Remarks
      • Notes
    • Appendixes
      • Appendix 1: Questions From the IBM Attitude Survey Questionnaire Referred to in This Book
      • Appendix 2: Country Scores on A, B, and C Questions (except A5-A32 and C1-C8)
      • Appendix 3: Standardized Country and Occupation Scores for Work Goals (questions A5-18 and C1-C8)
      • Appendix 4: Replicating the IBM-Style Cross-National Survey
      • Appendix 5: Summary of Country Index Scores (including additions)
      • Appendix 6: Summary of Significant Correlations of Country Index Scores With Data From Other Sources
      • Appendix 7: Two Case Studies From the IRIC Organizational Cultures Research Project
      • Appendix 8: The Author's Values

      Reviews:

      Cultural Consequences

      by Roland Buresund last modified 2007-12-05 15:15

      Rating: ******* (Good)

      A classical work in a second edition, that also answers the most common critique. Absolutely interesting, but not easy reading.

      Also, please be aware that this book addresses culture's effect on/by an organization! It is not trying to be the end-all of all cultural studies.

      Another warning, is that this is in reality an academic book, with lots of references, statistics, references to studies etc. But if you're interested in culture and organisations, you should definitely read this, regardless on your opinions on Hofstede, as it is one of the most referenced books in the subject.


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