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Global Marketing and Advertising

Understanding Cultural Paradoxes

Marieke de Mooij

Publisher: Sage, 1998 , 316 pages

ISBN: 0-8039-5970-2

Synopsis:

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Cultural diversity influences marketing and advertising at all levels: consumer behavior, research methodology, philosophies of how advertising works, advertising strategy, concept, and execution. What the field has been lacking is a knowledge base of cultural differences and similarities to be used for developing global strategies. This book presents such a knowledge base, a structure to understand the consequences of culture for marketing and advertising.

Global Marketing and Advertising describes the characteristics of a global brand, how advertising adds value to brands, the concept of culture and culture's consequences for values and motivation in advertising, and how culture influences the perception of advertising. Marieke de Mooij's application of Gert Hofstede's 5D model of marketing and advertising is an essential theme of this book.

Table of Contents:

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  1. The Paradoxes in Global Marketing Communications
    • The Value Paradox
    • The Global-Local Paradox
      • The Technology Paradox
      • The Media Paradox
      • The Culture-Free Versus Culture-Bound Paradox
      • Local Markets Are People, Global Markets Are Products
    • The Paradoxes in Marketing
      • The Universal and the Particular
      • Focus on the Individual
      • Brand Personality: A Western Concept
      • The Paradoxes of "Marketing Trends"
    • The Global Advertising Paradox
      • Effective Advertising Needs a Shared Culture
      • Bland Global Advertising in an Age of Communication Overload
    • The Research Paradox
    • How Advertising Works
    • The Content-Form Paradox in Advertising
    • Conclusion
  2. The Global-Local Paradox
    • How Standardized Is a Global Brand
    • The Global Brand: The Consumer's Viewpoint
      • The Perception of Global Brands
      • Increasingly, Consumers Prefer National Brands
    • Global Branding Strategies
      • Different Brand Types
      • Strategies for International Branding
      • Choice of Strategy
    • The Global-Local Dilemma
      • The Standardization Viewpoint
    • Factors Influencing the Degree of Standardization
      • Product Category
      • Product Life Cycle and Brand Positioning
      • The Media
      • Market Affluence
      • Company Organization and Management
      • Homogenization of Consumer Needs and Tastes
      • Advertising Concept and Execution
      • Can Advertising Ideas Travel?
    • The Local Viewpoint
      • The Importance of Culture
    • Effective Global Advertising
    • Global Advertising Means Adding Value to Global Products
      • Advertising and Branding
    • Advertising Reflects Society's Values
    • Conclusion
  3. Culture
    • Culture Defined
    • Culture Universals
    • Manifestation of Culture
    • Selective Perception
    • Stereotyping
    • Thinking Patterns and Intellectual Style
    • Language
    • Signs, Symbols, and Body Language
    • Imagery and Music
    • Global Culture
    • Conclusion
  4. Dimensions of Culture
    • Documenting Cultural Differences and Similarities
      • Ethnocentrism
      • The Specific and the General, the Ethnic and the Etic
      • Dimensions of Culture
    • High-Context and Low-Context Cultures
      • Closure
      • Time Heals
      • Long-Term Versus Short-Term Thinking
      • Time Orientation Towards the Past, Present, or Future
      • Time Is Linear or Circular
      • Monochronic and Polychronic Time
      • Cause and Effect
      • Time as Symbol
    • Relationship to Nature
    • Gannon's Cultural Metaphors
    • Hofstede's Five Dimensions of Culture
      • Power Distance (PDI)
      • Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)
      • Masculinity/Femininity (MAS)
      • Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
      • Long-Term Orientation (LTO)
    • Configuration of Dimensions
      • The United States
      • The Netherlands
      • Japan
    • Conclusion
  5. Values and Marketing
    • The Value Concept
      • Terminal Values and Instrumental Values
      • Value Systems and Value Orientation
      • Values, Attitudes, and Needs
      • Classifications of Values and Lists of Values
      • Values Are Enduring
      • Value Shift
    • Cross-Cultural Value Research
    • Priorities of Values Vary Across Cultures
    • Culture-Specific Values
      • Masculine and Feminine Values
      • Belgian Values
      • Indian Values
      • East Asian Values
      • Japanese Values
    • Cross-Cultural Use of Value Studies
      • Values Don't Translate
    • The Value Concept in Marketing and Advertising
      • Value Structure Maps
    • Lifestyle Research
    • Conclusion
  6. Culture and Consumer Behavior
    • Classification of Consumption Values
    • Group and Reference Group
    • Decision Making
      • Time Orientation and Decision Making
      • The Decision-Making Unit
    • Opinion Leaders
    • Diffusion of Innovations
    • Brand Loyalty
    • Needs
    • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • Attitude
    • Motivation
    • Emotion
    • The Concepts of Self, Personality, and Identity
    • Conclusion
  7. Culture and How Advertising Works
    • Communication Styles
      • High-Context and Low-Context Communication
      • Direct Versus Indirect Modes of Communication
      • Verbal Communication Styles
      • Nonverbal Communication Styles
      • France: High-Context or Low-Context?
    • The Purpose of Communication
    • Information Processing
    • Informational Versus Emotional
    • Persuasive Communication
    • Likability
    • How Advertising Works
      • The Hierarchy of Effects
      • High and Low Involvement
      • Argument From Consequence
    • Styles of Research
    • Models of How Advertising Works
    • Conclusion
  8. Value Paradoxes in Advertising Appeals
    • Appeals in Advertising
    • The Value Paradox: The Desirable and the Desired
    • The Value Paradox as an Effective Advertising Instrument
      • Equality Paradox
      • Dependence and Freedom Paradoxes
      • Success Paradoxes
      • The Innovation Paradox
      • The Tension Paradox
    • Examples of Appeals by Dimension
      • Power Distance
      • Individualism/Collectivism
      • Masculinity/Femininity
      • Uncertainty Avoidance
      • Long-Term Orientation
    • Consequences for Advertising Concepts
    • Why Humor Doesn't Travel
    • Conclusion
  9. Cross-Cultural Advertising Research
    • Cross-Cultural Advertising Research
      • Assumption and Hypothesis
      • Method
      • Sample Design
      • Content Analysis Criteria
      • Categorizations
      • Execution Criteria
      • Bias in Conclusions
      • Laser Vision
      • An Argument Against Comparative Etic Studies and for the Emic Approach
    • Acceptance, Liking, and Perception of Advertising Across Cultures
    • Findings of Comparative Studies Between Two Countries
      • Comparison Between the United States and the United Kingdom
      • France-United States and France-the Netherlands
      • Comparison Between the United States and Japan
      • Content Analysis of Chinese Advertising
    • Multi-Country Comparisons
    • Comparison of Advertising Appeals
    • Conclusion
  10. Executional Style and Culture
    • Classifications of Advertising Style
      • Franzen's Classification System of Basic Advertising Forms
    • Eight Basic Advertising Forms Worldwide
      1. Announcement
      2. Pure Display
      3. Association Transfer
      4. Lesson
      5. Drama
      6. Entertainment
      7. Imagination
      8. Special Effects
      • A Global Classification System of Basic Advertising Forms
    • A Review of Basic Forms Across Eleven Countries
      • Television Commercials Are Combinations of Forms and Subforms
      • Additional Subforms
      • Coding
    • Relationship Among Basic Form, Culture and Product Category
      • Announcement
      • Display
      • Association Transfer
      • Lesson
      • Testimonial
      • Comparative Advertising
      • The "Procter & Gamble Effect"
      • Drama
      • Entertainment
      • Imagination
      • Special Effects
    • Conclusion
  11. Advertising Styles
    • Characteristics of Advertising Styles of Selected Countries
    • The American Advertising Style
    • The British Advertising Style
    • The German Advertising Style
    • The Italian Advertising Style
    • The Spanish Advertising Style
    • The French Advertising Style
    • A Few Remarks on Belgium
    • The Dutch Advertising Style
    • A Few Remarks on Advertising in Sweden
    • A Few Remarks on Advertising in Poland
    • The Japanese Advertising Style
    • Advertising in Chinese Societies
    • A Few Remarks on Advertising in Korea
    • Conclusion
  12. From Value Paradox to Strategy
    • Modernization
    • Global Target Groups
    • Consumer Behavior
    • Product/Market Development
    • Global Brand Strategy
    • Global Communication Strategy
    • Global Advertising Strategy
      1. Fully Standardized: One Product or Brand, Displays, No Values
      2. Semi-Standardized: One Brand, One Advertising Form, and Standard Execution (Voice-Over and/or Lip-Sync)
      3. One Brand, One Form, Varying Standard Executional Elements
      4. One or Different Brandnames, One Advertising form, Different Execution
      5. One or Different Brandnames, One Platform, Different Execution
      6. Multi-Local: Act Globally, Think Local — Endorsement
    • Further Research
    • The Future of Global  Advertising
    • Conclusion

Reviews:

Global Marketing and Advertising

by Roland Buresund last modified 2007-12-03 21:08

Rating: ****** (Decent)

Excellent book about global advertising.

Of course, you have to accept Hofstede's view of cultural differences, but apart from that, I believe she has written an interesting book about a pretty boring subject.


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